This documentation is for an old GraalVM version. See the latest version.

Standalone Applications with Python

With GraalPy, you can distribute Python applications or libraries as standalone binaries or JAR files without any external dependencies. The Truffle framework on which GraalPy is built, and the Sulong LLVM runtime that GraalPy leverages for managed execution of Python’s native extensions enables users to completely virtualize all filesystem accesses of Python programs, including those to the standard library and installed packages.

GraalPy comes with a module that can create standalone binaries or Java project skeletons. The binaries bundle everything into one native executable. The Java skeletons are set up with Maven to build and run self-contained JAR files. They can also be used to generate a standalone binary from those JAR files later, so Java skeletons offer more flexibility and control over the steps.

Prerequisite #

Set JAVA_HOME to use a GraalVM distribution.

Creating GraalPy Binaries #

Suppose there is a simple Python script, my_script.py, that does some useful work when run directly. To distribute it as a standalone native binary, run the following command:

graalpy -m standalone binary \
      --module my_script.py \
      --output my_binary

It generates a standalone my_binary file which includes the Python code, the GraalPy runtime, and the Python standard library in a single, self-contained executable. Use graalpy -m standalone binary --help for further options.

Embedding GraalPy in a Java Application #

You can distribute the Python script as a JAR file that runs on GraalVM and includes GraalPy. To achieve this, run the java subcommand of GraalPy’s standalone module:

graalpy -m standalone java \
      --module my_script.py \
      --output-directory MyJavaApplication

It creates a Java project MyJavaApplication. It includes a pom.xml file that makes it easy to generate a JAR file or a GraalVM native executable with Maven. You can open this Maven project with any Java IDE and edit the main class that was created to modify the Python embedding. To build the application, either use mvn -Pjar package to create a JAR file, or mvn -Pnative package to create a GraalVM native executable.

Take a look at the generated pom.xml file. There are some options to tweak the performance and footprint trade-off. Review the Python Native Images documentation to find out how to remove other unwanted components and further reduce the binary size.

The generated project should be viewed as a starting point. It includes the entire Python standard library, so the Python code can invoke all of the standard library code. The resources can be manually pruned to reduce the included Python libraries to the necessary amount, reducing both the size of the package and the time to start up. This Java example demonstrates some useful default options for the Python context, but other settings may be desirable to further control what the Python code is allowed to do.

Security Considerations #

Creating a native executable or a JAR file that includes the Python code could be seen as a mild form of obfuscation, but it does not protect your source code. While the Python sources are not stored verbatim into the executable (only the GraalPy bytecode is stored), that bytecode is easy to convert back into Python sources. If stronger protection for the included Python source code is required, consider, for example, encryption of the resources before building the native executable, and adding appropriate decryption into the generated virtual file system.

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