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Use Gradle to Build a Native Executable from a Java Application

You can use the Gradle plugin for GraalVM Native Image to build a native executable from a Java application in one step, in addition to a runnable JAR. The plugin is provided as part of the Native Build Tools project and uses the Gradle build tool.

The Gradle plugin for GraalVM Native Image works with the application plugin and registers a number of tasks and extensions for you. For more information, see the plugin documentation.

This guide shows you how to use the Native Image Gradle plugin to build a native executable from a Java application, add support for dynamic features, and run JUnit tests.

You will use a Fortune demo application that simulates the traditional fortune Unix program. The data for the fortune phrases is provided by YourFortune.

There are two ways to build a native executable from a Java application–both are demonstrated below:

We recommend that you follow the instructions and create the application step-by-step. Alternatively, you can use an existing project: clone the GraalVM demos repository and navigate into the fortune-demo/gradle/fortune directory:

git clone && cd graalvm-demos/fortune-demo/fortune-gradle

You must have GraalVM installed with Native Image support.

Prepare a Demo Application

  1. Create a new Java project with Gradle using the following command (alternatively, you can use your IDE to generate a project):

     gradle init --project-name fortune --type java-application --package demo --test-framework junit-jupiter --dsl groovy
  2. Rename the default app directory to fortune, then rename the default filename to and replace its contents with the following:

     package demo;
     import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.JsonProcessingException;
     import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.JsonNode;
     import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;
     import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
     import java.util.ArrayList;
     import java.util.Iterator;
     import java.util.Random;
     import java.util.logging.Level;
     import java.util.logging.Logger;
     public class Fortune {
         private static final Random RANDOM = new Random();
         private final ArrayList<String> fortunes = new ArrayList<>();
         public Fortune() throws JsonProcessingException {
             // Scan the file into the array of fortunes
             String json = readInputStream(ClassLoader.getSystemResourceAsStream("fortunes.json"));
             ObjectMapper omap = new ObjectMapper();
             JsonNode root = omap.readTree(json);
             JsonNode data = root.get("data");
             Iterator<JsonNode> elements = data.elements();
             while (elements.hasNext()) {
                 JsonNode quote ="quote");
         private String readInputStream(InputStream is) {
             StringBuilder out = new StringBuilder();
             try (InputStreamReader streamReader = new InputStreamReader(is, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
                  BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(streamReader)) {
                 String line;
                 while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
             } catch (IOException e) {
                 Logger.getLogger(Fortune.class.getName()).log(Level.SEVERE, null, e);
             return out.toString();
         public String randomFortune() {
             //Pick a random number
             int r = RANDOM.nextInt(fortunes.size());
             //Use the random number to pick a random fortune
             return fortunes.get(r);
         private void printRandomFortune() throws InterruptedException {
             String f = randomFortune();
             // Print out the fortune s.l.o.w.l.y
             for (char c : f.toCharArray()) {
          * @param args the command line arguments
         public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException, JsonProcessingException {
             Fortune fortune = new Fortune();
  3. Delete the fortune/src/test/java directory, you will add tests in a later stage.

  4. Copy and paste the following file, fortunes.json under fortune/src/main/resources/. Your project tree should be:

     ├── fortune
     │   ├── build.gradle
     │   └── src
     │       ├── main
     │       │   ├── java
     │       │   │   └── demo
     │       │   │       └──
     │       │   └── resources
     │       │       └── fortunes.json
     │       └── test
     │           └── resources
     ├── gradle
     │   └── wrapper
     │       ├── gradle-wrapper.jar
     │       └──
     ├── gradlew
     ├── gradlew.bat
     └── settings.gradle
  5. Open the Gradle configuration file build.gradle, and update the main class in the application section:

     application {
         mainClass = 'demo.Fortune'
  6. Add explicit FasterXML Jackson dependencies that provide functionality to read and write JSON, data-binding (used in the demo application). Insert the following three lines in the dependencies section of build.gradle:

     implementation 'com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-core:2.13.2'
     implementation 'com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-databind:'
     implementation 'com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-annotations:2.13.2'

    Also, remove the dependency on guava that will not be used.

    The next steps will be focused what you should do to enable the Native Image Gradle plugin.

  7. Register the Native Image Gradle plugin. Add the following to plugins section of your project’s build.gradle file:

     plugins {
     // ...
     id 'org.graalvm.buildtools.native' version '0.9.12'

    The plugin discovers which JAR files it needs to pass to the native-image builder and what the executable main class should be.

  8. The plugin is not yet available on the Gradle Plugin Portal, so declare an additional plugin repository. Open the settings.gradle file and replace the default content with this:

     pluginManagement {
         repositories {
 = 'fortune-parent'

    Note that the pluginManagement {} block must appear before any other statements in the file.

Build a Native Executable with Resources Autodetection

You can already build a native executable by running ./gradlew nativeCompile or run it directly by invoking ./gradlew nativeRun. However, at this stage, running the native executable will fail because this application requires additional metadata: you need to provide it with a list of resources to load.

  1. Instruct the plugin to automatically detect resources to be included in the native executable. Add this to your build.gradle file:

     graalvmNative {
         binaries.all {
         toolchainDetection = false

    Another thing to note here, the plugin may not be able to properly detect the GraalVM installation, because of limitations in Gradle. By default, the plugin selects a Java 11 GraalVM Community Edition. If you want to use GraalVM Enterprise, or a particular version of GraalVM and Java, you need to explicitly tell in plugin’s configuration. For example:

     graalvmNative {
         binaries {
             main {
                 javaLauncher = javaToolchains.launcherFor {
                     languageVersion = JavaLanguageVersion.of(8)
                     vendor = JvmVendorSpec.matching("GraalVM Community")

    The workaround to this is to disable toolchain detection with this command toolchainDetection = false.

  2. Compile the project and build a native executable at one step:

     ./gradlew nativeRun

    The native executable, named fortune, is created in the /fortune/build/native/nativeCompile directory.

  3. Run the native executable:


    The application starts and prints a random quote.

Configuring the graalvmNative plugin to automatically detect resources (resources.autodetect()) to be included in a binary is the one way to make this example work. Using resources.autodetect() solution works because the application uses resources (fortunes.json) which are directly available in the src/main/resources location.

But then, the guide explains that for the sake of demonstration, we can use the agent to do the same.

Build a Native Executable by Detecting Resources with the Agent

The Native Image Gradle plugin simplifies generation of the required metadata by injecting the Java agent automatically for you at compile time. To enable the agent, just pass the -Pagent option to any Gradle tasks that extends JavaForkOptions (for example, test or run).

The configuration block you added takes care of detecting resources, but it potentially adds more than what you need, and may not deal with more advanced use cases such as dynamic proxies. To demonstrate this approach, remove the resources.autodetect() configuration block.

The following steps illustrate how to collect metadata using the agent, and then build a native executable using that metadata.

  1. Run your application with the agent enabled:

     ./gradlew -Pagent run
  2. Once the metadata is collected, copy it into the project’s /META-INF/native-image directory using the metadataCopy task:

     ./gradlew metadataCopy --task run --dir src/main/resources/META-INF/native-image
  3. Build a native executable using metadata acquired by the agent with Gradle.

     ./gradlew nativeCompile

    The native executable, named fortune, is created in the build/native/nativeCompile directory.

  4. Run the native executable:


    The application starts and prints a random quote.

To see the benefits of running your application as a native executable, time how long it takes and compare the results with running as a Java application.

You can customize the plugin. For example, change the name of the native executable and pass additional parameters to the plugin in the build.gradle file, as follows:

graalvmNative {
    binaries {
        main {

The native executable then will be called fortuneteller. Notice how you can pass additional arguments to the native-image tool using the buildArgs.add syntax.

Add JUnit Testing

The Gradle plugin for GraalVM Native Image can run JUnit Platform tests on your native executable. This means that the tests will be compiled and run as native code.

  1. Create the following test in the fortunate/src/test/java/demo/ file:

     package demo;
     import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.JsonProcessingException;
     import org.junit.jupiter.api.DisplayName;
     import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
     import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertTrue;
     class FortuneTest {
         @DisplayName("Returns a fortune")
         void testItWorks() throws JsonProcessingException {
             Fortune fortune = new Fortune();
  2. Run JUnit tests:

     ./gradlew nativeTest

    The plugin runs tests on the JVM prior to running tests from the native executable. To disable testing support (which comes by default), add the following configuration to the build.gradle file:

     graalvmNative {
         testSupport = false

Run Tests with the Agent

If you need to test collecting metadata with the agent, add the -Pagent option to the test and nativeTest task invocations:

  1. Run the tests on the JVM with the agent:

     ./gradlew -Pagent test

    It runs your application on the JVM with the agent, collects the metadata and uses it for testing on native-image. The generated configuration files (containing the metadata) can be found in the ${buildDir}/native/agent-output/${taskName} directory. In this case, for example, build/native/agent-output/test. The Native Image Gradle plugin will also substitute {output_dir} in the agent options to point to this directory.

  2. Build a native executable using the metadata collected by the agent:

     ./gradlew -Pagent nativeTest


The Native Image Gradle plugin has many more configuration options. For more information, see the plugin documentation.

Note that if your application does not call dynamically any classes at run time, the execution with the agent is needless. Your workflow in that case is just:

./gradlew nativeRun

Lastly, if you use GraalVM Enterprise as your JAVA_HOME environment, the plugin builds a native executable with enterprise features enabled.