Table of Contents

Native Image Build Configuration

Native Image supports a wide range of options to configure a native image build process.

Embedding a Configuration File

A recommended way to provide configuration is to embed a file into a project JAR file. The Native Image builder will automatically pick up all configuration options provided anywhere below the resource location META-INF/native-image/ and use it to construct native-image command line arguments.

To avoid a situation when constituent parts of a project are built with overlapping configurations, it is recommended to use “subdirectories” within META-INF/native-image. That way a JAR file built from multiple maven projects cannot suffer from overlapping native-image configurations. For example:

  • foo.jar has its configurations in META-INF/native-image/foo_groupID/foo_artifactID
  • bar.jar has its configurations in META-INF/native-image/bar_groupID/bar_artifactID

The JAR file that contains foo and bar will then contain both configurations without conflicting with one another. Therefore the recommended layout for storing native image configuration data in JAR files is the following:

└── native-image
    └── groupID
        └── artifactID

Note that the use of ${.} in a file expands to the resource location that contains that exact configuration file. This can be useful if the file wants to refer to resources within its “subfolder”, for example, -H:SubstitutionResources=${.}/substitutions.json. Always make sure to use the option variants that take resources, i.e., use -H:ResourceConfigurationResources instead of -H:ResourceConfigurationFiles. Other options that are known to work in this context are:

  • -H:DynamicProxyConfigurationResources
  • -H:JNIConfigurationResources
  • -H:ReflectionConfigurationResources
  • -H:ResourceConfigurationResources
  • -H:SubstitutionResources
  • -H:SerializationConfigurationResources

By having such a composable file, building an image does not require any additional arguments specified on command line. It is sufficient to just run the following command:

$JAVA_HOME/bin/native-image -jar target/<name>.jar

To debug which configuration data gets applied for the image building, use native-image --verbose. This will show from where native-image picks up the configurations to construct the final composite configuration command line options for the native image builder.

native-image --verbose -jar build/basic-app-0.1-all.jar
Apply jar:file://~/build/basic-app-0.1-all.jar!/META-INF/native-image/io.netty/common/
Apply jar:file://~/build/basic-app-0.1-all.jar!/META-INF/native-image/io.netty/buffer/
Apply jar:file://~/build/basic-app-0.1-all.jar!/META-INF/native-image/io.netty/transport/
Apply jar:file://~/build/basic-app-0.1-all.jar!/META-INF/native-image/io.netty/handler/
Apply jar:file://~/build/basic-app-0.1-all.jar!/META-INF/native-image/io.netty/codec-http/
Executing [
    <composite configuration command line options for the image builder>

Typical examples of META-INF/native-image based native image configuration can be found in Native Image configuration examples.

Configuration File Format

A file is a regular Java properties file that can be used to specify native image configurations. The following properties are supported.


Use this property if your project requires custom native-image command line options to build correctly. For example, the native-image-configure-examples/configure-at-runtime-example has Args = --initialize-at-build-time=com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonProperty$Access in its file to ensure the class com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonProperty$Access gets initialized at image build time.


Sometimes it can be necessary to provide custom options to the JVM that runs the native image builder. The JavaArgs property can be used in this case.


This property can be used to specify a user-defined name for the image. If ImageName is not used, a name gets automatically chosen:

  • native-image -jar <name.jar> has a default image name <name>
  • native-image -cp ... fully.qualified.MainClass has a default image name fully.qualified.mainclass

Note that using ImageName does not prevent the user to override the name later via command line. For example, if contains ImageName=foo_app:

  • native-image -jar generates the image foo_app but
  • native-image -jar application generates the image application

Order of Arguments Evaluation

The arguments passed to native-image are evaluated left-to-right. This also extends to arguments that get passed indirectly via META-INF/native-image based native image configuration. Suppose you have a JAR file that contains with Args = -H:Optimize=0. Then by using the -H:Optimize=2 option after -cp <jar-file> you can override the setting that comes from the JAR file.

Specifying Default Options for Native Image

If there is a need to pass some options for every image build unconditionally, for example, to always generate an image in verbose mode (--verbose), you can make use of the NATIVE_IMAGE_CONFIG_FILE environment variable. If it is set to a Java properties file, the Native Image builder will use the default setting defined in there on each invocation. Write a configuration file and export NATIVE_IMAGE_CONFIG_FILE=$HOME/.native-image/ in ~/.bash_profile. Every time native-image gets used, it will implicitly use the arguments specified as NativeImageArgs, plus the arguments specified on the command line. Here is an example of a configuration file, saved as ~/.native-image/

NativeImageArgs = --configurations-path /home/user/custom-image-configs \

Changing the Configuration Directory

Native Image by default stores the configuration information in user’s home directory – $HOME/.native-image/. In order to change the output directory, set the environment variable NATIVE_IMAGE_USER_HOME to a different location. For example:

export NATIVE_IMAGE_USER_HOME= $HOME/.local/share/native-image

Memory Configuration for Native Image Build

The native image build runs on the Java HotSpot VM and uses the memory management of the underlying platform. The usual Java HotSpot command-line options for garbage collection apply to the native image builder.

During the native image build, the representation of a whole program is created to figure out which classes and methods will be used at run time. It is a computationally intensive process. The default values for memory usage at image build time are:

-Xss10M \
-Xms1G \

These defaults can be changed by passing -J + <jvm option for memory> to the native image builder.

The -Xmx value is computed by using 80% of the physical memory size, but no more than 14G per server. Providing a larger value for -Xmx on command line is possible, e.g., -J-Xmx26G.

By default, image building uses of up to 32 threads (but not more than the number of processors available). For custom values -H:NumberOfThreads=... can be used.

Check other related options to the native image builder from the native-image --expert-options-all list.

Runtime vs Build-Time Initialization

Building your application into a native image allows you to decide which parts of your application should be run at image build time and which parts have to run at image run time.

All class-initialization code (static initializers and static field initialization) of the application you build an image for is executed at image run time by default. Sometimes it is beneficial to allow class initialization code to get executed at image build time for faster startup (e.g., if some static fields get initialized to run-time independent data). This can be controlled with the following native-image options:

  • --initialize-at-build-time=<comma-separated list of packages and classes>
  • --initialize-at-run-time=<comma-separated list of packages and classes>

In addition to that, arbitrary computations are allowed at build time that can be put into ImageSingletons that are accessible at image run time. For more information please have a look at Native Image configuration examples.

For more information, continue reading to the Class Initialization in Native Image guide.