GraalVM supports several other programming languages, including JavaScript, R, Ruby, and LLVM. GraalVM provides a Python API to interact with other languages available on the GraalVM. In fact, GraalVM uses this API internally to execute Python C extensions using the LLVM implementation in GraalVM.

You can import the polyglot module to interact with other languages. In order to use the polyglot functionality, you need to specify --jvm --polyglot arguments to the graalpython executable.

import polyglot

Evaluating code in other languages #

polyglot.eval(string="1 + 1", language="ruby")

It also works with the path to a file:

polyglot.eval(path="./my_ruby_file.rb", language="ruby")

If you pass a file, you can also try to rely on the file-based language detection:


Exporting and importing values #

To export something from Python to other Polyglot languages so they can import it:

foo = object()
polyglot.export_value(foo, name="python_foo")

The export function can be used as a decorator, in this case the function name is used as the globally exported name:

def python_method():
    return "Hello from Python!"

You can import a global value from the entire polyglot scope (exported from another language):

imported_polyglot_global = polyglot.import_value("global_name")

This global should then work as expected; accessing attributes assumes it reads from the members namespace; accessing items is supported both with strings and numbers; calling methods on the result tries to do a straight invoke and falls back to reading the member and trying to execute it.

Examples #

Here is an example of how to use JavaScript regular expression engine to match Python strings. Save this code to the file:

import polyglot

re = polyglot.eval(string="RegExp()", language="js")

pattern = re.compile(".*(?:we have (?:a )?matching strings?(?:[!\\?] )?)(.*)")

if pattern.exec("This string does not match"):
    raise SystemError("that shouldn't happen")

md = pattern.exec("Look, we have matching strings! This string was matched by Graal.js")
if not md:
    raise SystemError("this should have matched")

print("Here is what we found: '%s'" % md[1])

To run it, pass the --jvm --polyglot options to graalpython binary:

graalpython --jvm --polyglot

This example matches Python strings using the JavaScript regular expression object and Python reads the captured group from the JavaScript result and prints: Here is what we found: 'This string was matched by Graal.js'.

As a more complex example, we can read a file using R, process the data in Python, and use R again to display the resulting data image, using both R and Python libraries in conjunction. To run it, first install the required R library:

R -e 'install.packages("", repos=NULL)'

This example also uses and works on a JPEG image input (you can try with this image). These files have to be in the same folder the script below is located in and executed from.

import polyglot
import sys
import time
sys.path.insert(0, ".")
from image_magix import Image

load_jpeg = polyglot.eval(string="""function( {
    jimg <- readJPEG(
    jimg <- jimg*255
}""", language="R")

raw_data = load_jpeg("python_demo_picture.jpg")

# the dimensions are R attributes; define function to access them
getDim = polyglot.eval(string="function(v, pos) dim(v)[[pos]]", language="R")

# Create object of Python class 'Image' with loaded JPEG data
image = Image(getDim(raw_data, 2), getDim(raw_data, 1), raw_data)

# Run Sobel filter
result = image.sobel()

draw = polyglot.eval(string="""function(processedImgObj) {
    mx <- matrix(processedImgObj$`@data`/255, nrow=processedImgObj$`@height`, ncol=processedImgObj$`@width`)
    grid.raster(mx, height=unit(nrow(mx),"points"))
}""", language="R")


Java Interoperability #

Finally, to interoperate with Java (only when running on the JVM), you can use the java module:

import java
BigInteger = java.type("java.math.BigInteger")
myBigInt = BigInteger.valueOf(42)
myBigInt.shiftLeft(128)            # public Java methods can just be called
myBigInt["not"]()                  # Java method names that are keywords in
                                   # Python can be accessed using "[]"
byteArray = myBigInt.toByteArray()
print(list(byteArray))             # Java arrays can act like Python lists

For packages under the java package, you can also use the normal Python import syntax. This syntax is limited to importing concrete classes, it doesn’t work on packages, unless in Jython Compatibility mode.

import java.util.ArrayList
from java.util import ArrayList

# these are the same class
java.util.ArrayList == ArrayList

al = ArrayList()
print(al) # prints [1, 12]

In addition to the type builtin method, the java module, exposes the following methods as well:

Builtin Specification
instanceof(obj, class) returns True if obj is an instance of class (class must be a foreign object class)
is_function(obj) returns True if obj is a Java host language function wrapped using Truffle interop
is_object(obj) returns True if obj if the argument is Java host language object wrapped using Truffle interop
is_symbol(obj) returns True if obj if the argument is a Java host symbol, representing the constructor and static members of a Java class, as obtained by java.type
import java
ArrayList = java.type('java.util.ArrayList')
my_list = ArrayList()
print(java.is_symbol(ArrayList))    # prints True
print(java.is_symbol(my_list))      # prints False, my_list is not a Java host symbol
print(java.is_object(ArrayList))    # prints True, symbols are also host objects
print(java.is_function(my_list.add))# prints True, the add method of ArrayList
print(java.instanceof(my_list, ArrayList)) # prints True

See the Polyglot Programming and the Embed Languages reference for more information about interoperability with other programming languages.