GraalVM supports several other programming languages, including JavaScript, Python, Ruby, and R. While LLI is designed to run LLVM bitcode, it also provides an API for programming language interoperability that lets you execute code from any other language that GraalVM supports.

Dynamic languages like JavaScript usually access object members by name. Since normally names are not preserved in LLVM bitcode, it must be compiled with debug info enabled (the LLVM toolchain shipped with GraalVM will automatically enable debugging information).

The following example demonstrates how you can use the API for interoperability with other programming languages.

Let us define a C struct for points and implement allocation functions:

// cpart.c
#include <polyglot.h>

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

struct Point {
    double x;
    double y;


void *allocNativePoint() {
    struct Point *ret = malloc(sizeof(*ret));
    return polyglot_from_Point(ret);

void *allocNativePointArray(int length) {
    struct Point *ret = calloc(length, sizeof(*ret));
    return polyglot_from_Point_array(ret, length);

void freeNativePoint(struct Point *p) {

void printPoint(struct Point *p) {
    printf("Point<%f,%f>\n", p->x, p->y);

Make sure LLVM_TOOLCHAIN resolves to the GraalVM LLVM toolchain (lli --print-toolchain-path), then compile cpart.c with (the polyglot-mock library defines the polyglot API functions used in the example):

$LLVM_TOOLCHAIN/clang -shared cpart.c -lpolyglot-mock -o

You can access your C/C++ code from other languages like JavaScript:

// jspart.js

// Load and parse the LLVM bitcode into GraalVM
var cpart = Polyglot.evalFile("llvm" ,"");

// Allocate a light-weight C struct
var point = cpart.allocNativePoint();

// Access it as if it were a JS object
point.x = 5;
point.y = 7;

// Pass it back to a native function

// We can also allocate an array of structs
var pointArray = cpart.allocNativePointArray(15);

// We can access this array like it was a JS array
for (var i = 0; i < pointArray.length; i++) {
    var p = pointArray[i];
    p.x = i;
    p.y = 2*i;


// We can also pass a JS object to a native function
cpart.printPoint({x: 17, y: 42});

// Don't forget to free the unmanaged data objects

Run this JavaScript file with:

js --polyglot jspart.js

Polyglot C API #

There are also lower level API functions for directly accessing polyglot values from C. See the Polyglot Programming reference and the documentation comments in polyglot.h for more details.

For example, this program allocates and accesses a Java array from C:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <polyglot.h>

int main() {
    void *arrayType = polyglot_java_type("int[]");
    void *array = polyglot_new_instance(arrayType, 4);
    polyglot_set_array_element(array, 2, 24);
    int element = polyglot_as_i32(polyglot_get_array_element(array, 2));
    printf("%d\n", element);
    return element;

Compile it to LLVM bitcode:

$LLVM_TOOLCHAIN/clang polyglot.c -lpolyglot-mock -o polyglot

And run it, using the --jvm argument to run GraalVM in the JVM mode, since we are using a Java type:

lli --jvm polyglot

Embedding in Java #

GraalVM can also be used to embed LLVM bitcode in Java host programs.

For example, let us write a Java class that embeds GraalVM to run the previous example:

import org.graalvm.polyglot.*;

class Polyglot {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        Context polyglot = Context.newBuilder().
        File file = new File("polyglot");
        Source source = Source.newBuilder("llvm", file).build();
        Value cpart = polyglot.eval(source);

Compiling and running it:

java Polyglot

See the Embedding Languages reference for more information.