gu, is a command-line utility to install and manage optional GraalVM language runtimes and utilities.
Each of these language runtimes and utilities must be downloaded and installed separately.
To assist you with the installation, these are pre-packaged as JAR files and referenced in the documentation as “components”.
As of version 21.0.0, GraalVM Updater has become more efficient, and can be used to update your local GraalVM installation to a newer version or upgrade from a Community to Enterprise Edition.
Read more in Upgrade GraalVM.
GraalVM Updater is included in the base GraalVM distribution and can be used with the
The source code of GraalVM Updater is located in the
- Component Installation
- Component Uninstallation
- Upgrade GraalVM
- Installation Configuration
- Rebuild Images
- GraalVM Updater Commands Overview
- Configure Proxies
- Replace Components and Files
Component Installation #
The following GraalVM language runtimes and utilities are available for installation.
- Native Image – a technology to compile an application ahead-of-time into a native executable
- LLVM toolchain – a set of tools and APIs for compiling native programs to bitcode that can be executed on GraalVM
- Java on Truffle – a Java Virtual Machine implementation based on a Truffle interpreter for GraalVM
- Python – Python 3.8.5-compatible
- Ruby – Ruby 2.7.2-compatible
- R – GNU R 3.6.1-compatible
- Wasm – WebAssembly (Wasm)
GraalVM Updater verifies whether or not the version of a component is appropriate for the current GraalVM installation. Components are released for each GraalVM distribution with respective updates, and those downloaded for previous release(s) cannot be used with newer ones. A component may require other components as prerequisites for its operation. GraalVM Updater verifies such requirements and will either attempt to download the required dependencies, or abort the installation if the component’s requirements are not met.
Note: Components intended for Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition cannot be installed on GraalVM Community Edition.
Three modes of a component installation are supported:
Installation from Catalog #
There is a components catalog available on GitHub, maintained by Oracle, from which you can install a component by its name.
- Get a list of IDs and descriptive names of the components available in the catalog:
- Install the component package using the
ComponentIdvalue. For example, for
gu install ruby
GraalVM Updater first downloads the list of components, then uses the information in the list to download the actual component package, then installs it. To see more verbose output during the installation, like the download progress bar, print versions, and dependency information, use the
If a component being installed depends on another component, GraalVM Updater will search the catalog to find an appropriate dependency and install it as well. If the required components cannot be found, installation will fail.
When using custom catalog URLs, it is possible, for a convenience, to set
the environment variable
GRAALVM_CATALOG pointing to the custom catalog’s URL.
GraalVM Updater will use the URL defined by
GRAALVM_CATALOG in preference to
the builtin ones. You may setup the environment variable in startup or profile
Manual Installation #
- Download a component from the Oracle GraalVM Downloads page. The following pre-built components are available for download:
- Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition Native Image Early Adopter
- GraalVM LLVM Toolchain Plugin
- Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition Ruby Language Plugin
- Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition Python Language Plugin
- Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition WebAssembly Language Plugin
- Having downloaded the appropriate JAR file in consideration of the operating system
and underlying Java SE version, install it with:
gu -L install component.jar
For example, to install Native Image for Java 11 GraalVM Enterprise distribution on macOS, run:
gu -L install native-image-installable-svm-java11-darwin-amd64-21.0.0.jar
-L option, equivalent to
--file, installs a component from a downloaded JAR.
However, a component may depend on other components (e.g., Ruby depends on the LLVM toolchain).
gu -L install component.jar will fail if the required components are not yet installed.
If all dependencies are downloaded into the same directory, you can run:
gu -L install -D
gu --help or
gu -C for how to instruct GraalVM Updater to find and process required components.
Installation from Local Components Collection #
Components can be downloaded manually in advance to a local file folder, or to a folder shared on the local network. GraalVM Updater can then use that folder instead of the catalog:
gu install -C /path/to/downloads/directory ComponentId
Specify the directory to use for the components collection. It is possible to type
a component’s name (like
ruby) instead of a filename. GraalVM Updater will also
attempt to find required dependencies in the local component collection.
When installing components from a given directory, you can allow installing all components which have the correct version number for GraalVM Enterprise using wildcards:
./gu install -C ~/Download/Components/ native*
This will install the
native-image component, or anything that starts with
Check Installed Components #
Installed components can be printed with:
Generic support for R, Ruby, Python, and WebAssembly languages will work out of the box in most cases. It is recommended to fine-tune system-dependent configurations, following the recommendations in the component post-installation messages.
Component Uninstallation #
Components may be uninstalled from GraalVM when no longer needed. To uninstall a
specific component, use its
gu list to find out the exact
ComponentId. The command to uninstall the component is:
gu remove ruby
If more components end with, for example,
ruby, the installer will print an
error message that a component’s full name is required (
The uninstallation removes the files created during the installation. If a file
belongs to multiple components, it will be removed when the last component using
it is removed.
Please be informed that the LLVM toolchain component may fail uninstallation invoked from the command line or the Visual Studio Code user interface if its dependent component(s) remain installed.
In this case, remove the dependent component first, or add the
-D option, which would remove dependent components in addition to those explicitly selected:
gu -D remove llvm-toolchain
Upgrade GraalVM #
GraalVM Updater has the capability to update the existing GraalVM installation on your local machine to the most recent version. Besides that, it can also upgrade the edition from Community to Enterprise.
For example, having GraalVM 20.x installed, update to the most recent available version with:
GraalVM Updater will attempt to download the latest version of either GraalVM Enterprise or GraalVM Community Edition, if available.
It will not rewrite the existing installation, but unpack it into a new directory and print out the location path.
It will also verify if you have any optional components installed in the current GraalVM installation and update those as well.
If the “parent” installation contains a symlink to the currrent GraalVM installation, that symlink will be updated. If your setup involves some environment variables (e.g.,
PATH) pointing to a selected GraalVM installation, those variables should be updated manually.
By appending the
--edition switch, you can switch editions.
For example, to upgrade GraalVM Community Edition to Enterprise, run:
gu upgrade --edition ee
It will install the newest version of GraalVM Enterprise Edition, next to the current installation. GraalVM Updater will again check for the optional component presence, verify if a component is appropriate for the installation, and upgrade it as well.
Note: You can only upgrade GraalVM to a newer version with GraalVM Updater. The downgrades to an older version, and from GraalVM Enterprise to Community Edition are manual.
Installation Configuration #
The installation command of GraalVM Updater accepts multiple options and parameters, and allows this syntax:
gu install [-0cCfFiLnorsuvyxY] param [param ...]
The following options are currently supported:
-0, --dry-run: dry run, do not change anything
-c, --catalog: treat parameters as component IDs from the GraalVM components catalog. This is the default
-C, --custom-catalog <url>: use a specific catalog URL to locate components
-L, --local-file: treat parameters as local filenames of packaged components
-f, --force: force overwrite, bypass version checks
-i, --fail-existing: fail on an existing component
-n, --no-progress: do not display the downloading progress
-o, --overwrite: overwrite different files
-r, --replace: replace existing components
-s, --no-verify-jars: skip integrity verification of component archives
-u, --url: interpret parameters as URLs of packaged components
-v, --verbose: be verbose. Prints versions and dependency information
-x, --ignore: ignore failures
-y, --only-validate: do not install, just check compatibility and conflicting files
-Y, --validate-before: download, verify, and check file conflicts before any disk change is made
Rebuild Images #
GraalVM components for language runtime support may change. For example:
- polyglot native libraries become out of sync.
- removed languages runtimes may cause the native binary to fail on missing resources or libraries.
To rebuild and refresh the native binaries, use the following command:
gu rebuild-images [--verbose] polyglot|libpolyglot|js|llvm|python|ruby [custom native-image args]
GraalVM Updater Commands Overview #
Command-line help is available by running
gu -h. Run
gu <command> -h to get help specific for the particular command. For example,
gu install -h.
GraalVM Updater usage options:
gu info [-cClLnprstuvV] <param>: print the information about specific component (from file, URL, or catalog)
gu available [-aClvV] <expr>: list components available in the catalog
gu install [-0cCDfFiLnorsuvyxY] <param>: install a component package
gu list [-clv] <expression>: list installed components or components from catalog
gu remove [-0Dfxv] <id>: uninstall a component
gu update [-cCnLsux] [<ver>] [<param>]: upgrade to the recent GraalVM version
gu rebuild-images: rebuild native images. Use
-hfor detailed usage
gu upgrade: install the most recent available version of GraalVM
gu upgrade --edition ee: upgrade from GraalVM Community Edition to the most recent available version of GraalVM Enterprise Edition
GraalVM Updater common options:
-A, --auto-yes: say YES or ACCEPT to a question
-c, --catalog: treat parameters as component IDs from the catalog of GraalVM components. This is the default
-C, --custom-catalog <url>: use user-supplied catalog at URL
-e, --debug: enable debugging and print stacktraces
-E, --no-catalog-errors: do not stop if at least one catalog is working
-h, --help: print help
-L, --local-file, --file: treat parameters as local filenames of packaged components
-N, --non-interactive: enable non-interactive mode. Fail when input is required
--show-version: print version information and continue
-u, --url: interpret parameters as URLs of packaged components
-v, --verbose: enable verbose output. Print versions and dependency information
--version: print version
Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition users might need to pass an additional verification step to login to the Oracle components repository. GraalVM Updater tool provides options for that:
--public-key / -k <path>: set the path to a custom GPG public key path
--username/-U: enter a username
--native: run using the native launcher with limited Java access (default)
--jvm: run on the Java Virtual Machine with Java access
--vm.[option]: pass options to the host VM. To see available options, use
--log.file=<String>: redirect guest languages logging into a given file
--log.[logger].level=<String>: set language log level to OFF, SEVERE, WARNING, INFO, CONFIG, FINE, FINER, FINEST, or ALL
--help: print this help message
--help:vm: print options for the host VM
Configure Proxies #
If GraalVM Updater needs to reach the component catalog, or download a component
package, it may need to pass through the HTTP/HTTPS proxy, if the network uses one. On
macOS, the proxy settings are automatically obtained from the OS. On Linux,
ensure that the
https_proxy environment variables are set
appropriately before launching the
gu tool. Refer to the distribution
and/or desktop environment documentation for the details.
GraalVM Updater intentionally does not support an option to disable certificate
or hostname verification, for security reasons. A user may try to add a proxy’s
certificate to the GraalVM default security trust store. A user can also
download a component manually to a folder, and then use
gu -L install /path/to/file or
gu -C /path/to/download/dir install component to install from a local filesystem.
Working without Internet Access #
If your machine cannot access and download the catalog and components from the Internet, either because it is behind a proxy, or for security reasons, GraalVM Updater can install components from a local directory, or a directory on a network share accessible on the target machine.
You need to prepare a directory, download all components that you want to install and their dependencies (in case they require other GraalVM components to work) into that directory.
Then you can use
gu -L install /path/to/file (where the
-L option instructs to use local files,
--file). Adding the
-D option will instruct GraalVM Updater
to look for potential dependencies in the directory next to the
installable file. Additionally,
gu -C /path/to/download/dir install component can be used, with the specified
directory contents acting as a catalog of components.
Note that with
gu -L you need to specify the component’s file name, while
gu -C <dir>, the component name must be used:
# Specify file location gu -LD install /tmp/installables/fastr.jar # Specify component name gu -C /tmp/instalables install r
Replace Components and Files #
A component may be only installed once. GraalVM Updater refuses to install a component if a component with the same ID is already installed. However, the installed component can be replaced. GraalVM Updater first uninstalls the component and then installs a new package.
To replace a component, use the
option, and the
--file) option to treat parameters as local filename of a packaged component:
gu install -L -r component.jar gu install -r ruby
The process is the same as if
gu remove is run first and
gu install next.
GraalVM Updater also refuses to overwrite existing files if the
to-be-installed and existing versions differ. There are cases when refreshing
file contents may be needed, such as if they were modified or damaged. In this case, use the
gu install -L -o component.jar gu install -o ruby
GraalVM Updater will then instruct the user to replace the contained files of a
component. By default, it will not alter anything. Alternatively, use the
--force) option, which disables most of the checks, and allows the user to
install non-matching versions.
If a language component is not installed, running code that tries to initialize that language context can result in an exception like this:
java.lang.ExceptionInInitializerError Caused by: com.oracle.truffle.polyglot.PolyglotIllegalArgumentException: A language with id '$language' is not installed. Installed languages are: [js, llvm].
If you see a problem like that, install the language runtime component as explained above on this page.