- Why GraalVM?
- Getting Started
- Container Images
- Java Performance Examples
- Java Stream API Example
- Polyglot Node.js Example
- Native Image Examples
- Java/Kotlin Native Image Example
- Oracle Database Example
- Reference Manuals
- Debugging and Monitoring Tools
- GraalVM as a Platform
- Security Guide
- Release Notes
Ahead-of-Time Compilation of Java and Polyglot Applications
Below are sample applications illustrating GraalVM’s unique capabilities to create self-contained executable images which can run incredibly fast. Here you will also find a more sophisticated example displaying GraalVM’s ability to create polyglot native executables.
1. Download or clone the repository and navigate into the
git clone https://github.com/graalvm/graalvm-demos cd graalvm-demos/native-list-dir
There are two Java classes, but you will start by building
ListDir.java for the
purposes of this demo. You can manually execute
javac ListDir.java, and there is
build.sh script included for your convenience.
Note that you can use
any JDK for compiling the Java classes. However, we refer to
javac from GraalVM
in the build script to simplify the prerequisites so another JDK does not need to be installed.
2. Having installed GraalVM, export the home directory as
$GRAALVM_HOME and add
to the path, using a command-line shell for Linux:
For macOS, use:
Note that your paths are likely to be different depending on the download location.
3. Install Native Image to make use of the
4. Then execute:
build.sh script creates a native executable from the Java class.
Look at it in more detail:
native-image utility ahead-of-time compiles the
ListDir class into a
standalone binary in the current working directory. After running the
command, the executable file
listdir should have been produced.
Running the Application #
To run the application, you need to either execute the
as a normal Java application using
java, or since we have a native executable
prepared, run that directly.
run.sh file executes both, and times them with the
time java ListDir $1 time ./listdir $1
To make it more interesting, pass it to a parent directory:
./run.sh .., where
the parent of the current directory (the one containing all the demos).
Depending on the directory content you pass this script for, the output will be different than this:
java ListDir .. Walking path: .. Total: 141 files, total size = 14448801 bytes real 0m0.320s user 0m0.379s sys 0m0.070s ./listDir .. Walking path: .. Total: 141 files, total size = 14448801 bytes real 0m0.030s user 0m0.005s sys 0m0.011s
The performance gain of the native version is largely due to the faster startup.
Polyglot Capabilities #
You can also experiment with a more sophisticated
native-image utility about that by passing the
$GRAALVM_HOME/bin/native-image --language:js ExtListDir
The execution is the same as in the previous example:
$ time java ExtListDir $1 $ time ./extlistdir $1
Profile-Guided Optimizations for High Throughput #
Oracle GraalVM Enterprise Edition offers extra benefits for building native executables. These are profile-guided optimisations (PGO). As an example, a program demonstrating Java streams will be used.
1. Run the application with
java to see the output:
javac Streams.java $GRAALVM_HOME/bin/native-image Streams ./streams 1000000 200 ... Iteration 20 finished in 1955 milliseconds with checksum 6e36c560485cdc01
2. Build an instrumented image and run it to collect profiles:
$GRAALVM_HOME/bin/native-image --pgo-instrument Streams ./streams 1000 200
Profiles collected from this run are now stored in the
default.iprof file. Note that the profiling now runs with a much smaller data size.
3. Use the profiles gathered at the previous step to build an optimized native executable:
$GRAALVM_HOME/bin/native-image --pgo Streams
4. Run that optimized native executable:
./streams 1000000 200 ... Iteration 20 finished in 827 milliseconds with checksum 6e36c560485cdc01
You should see more than 2x improvements in performance.