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- Java on Truffle
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- Jython Compatibility
- Operating System Interfaces
- Installing Packages
- Python Code Parsing and pyc Files
- Python Native Executables
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Operating System Interfaces
Truffle-based GraalVM languages usually implement the system related functions using the Truffle abstraction layer, which is OS independent and provides extension points for the users when embedding GraalPy or other Truffle based languages into Java applications. See, for example, Truffle FileSystem service-provider.
The Python standard library also provides an OS abstraction, but exposes lower level interfaces, for instance, the
os module directly exposes some POSIX functions.
On non-POSIX platforms, this interface is emulated to a degree.
GraalPy provides two alternative implementations of the system-related functionality offered by the built-in Python modules such as
Which implementation is used can be controlled by the option
PosixModuleBackend: valid values are
Native Backend #
native backend directly calls the POSIX API in mostly the same way as CPython (the reference Python implementation).
This approach is the most compatible with CPython and provides bare access to the underlying OS interface without an intermediate emulation layer.
By default, this implementation bypasses the Truffle abstraction layer, therefore it is not sandboxed and does not support custom implementations of Truffle FileSystem service-provider, and other Polyglot API providers related to system interfaces.
The native backend is chosen by default when GraalPy is started via the
graalpy or any other Python related launcher.
The exceptions are Python related launchers with
-managed suffix available only in Oracle GraalVM (for example,
graalpy-managed), which by default use the
java POSIX backend.
Limitations of the Native Backend #
Known limitations are:
os.forkis not supported
_posixsubprocess.fork_execdoes not support the
Java Backend #
java backend uses the Truffle abstraction layer and therefore supports custom Polyglot API providers related to system interfaces and sandboxing.
Since this abstraction is POSIX agnostic, it does not expose all the necessary functionality. Some functionality is emulated, and some functionality is not supported at all.
The Java backend is the default when GraalPy is run via the
Context API, i.e., embedded in Java applications, or when it is launched using Python related launchers with the
-managed suffix (available only in Oracle GraalVM).
Limitations of the Emulated Backend #
GraalPy can log information about known incompatibility of functions executed at runtime, which includes the OS interface-related functions.
To turn on this logging, use
--log.python.compatibility.level=FINE or other desired logging level.
Known limitations of the emulated layer are:
- Its state is disconnected from the actual OS state, which applies especially to:
- file descriptors: Python-level file descriptors are not usable in native code
- current working directory: is initialized to the current working
directory at the startup, but then it is maintained separately. So, for example,
chdirin Python does not change the actual current working directory of the process.
- umask: similarly to current working directory, but it is always initialized
0022regardless of the actual system value at startup.
- Resolution of file access/modification times depends on the JDK. The best the emulated backend can guarantee is seconds resolution.
os.accessand any other functionality based on
faccessatPOSIX function does not support:
- effective IDs
follow_symlinks=Falseunless the mode is only
Relation to Python Native Extensions #
Apart from operating system interfaces exposed as built-in Python level modules, Python native extensions run via the GraalVM LLVM runtime may also access OS interfaces at the C level. How such accesses are handled depends on the GraalVM LLVM runtime configuration.
At this point, the only combination where OS handles, such as file descriptors, can be shared between Python and the C code of Python extensions is with
native PosixModuleBackend and
native mode of GraalVM LLVM runtime.
This combination is the default for the